|1.||Viruses. (allowance 6/3)|
|a.||Overview of Bacterial, Plant and Animal Viruses. Structure. Multiplication: Attachment, penetration, replication, maturation, release. Persistence of viruses in cells: lysogeny, transformation, latency. Host cell response to viral infection.|
|b.||Viruses and cancer. Oncogens. Prions.|
|2.||Microorganisms and human diseases. (allowance 4/2)|
|a.||Interaction between microbe and host. Principles of disease and epidemiology. Nosocomial infections.|
|3.||Antimicrobial drugs. (allowance 2/1)|
|Mode of action.|
Resistance. Mechanisms of resistance.
Microorganisms and the environment. (allowance 2/1)
|Biotic interaction of microorganisms. Mutualistic and antagonistic symbiosis.|
|b.||Biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, sulphur).|
Nutrient and oxygen requierements of microorganisms and sources of energy. (allowance 6/3)
Carbohydrate metabolism -- glycolysis, TCA, glyoxylate cycle, Entner-Doudorff pathway, pentose phosphate pathway, phosphoketolase pathway.
Respiration -- aerobic and anaerobic. Fermentation.
|c.||Photosynthesis and phosphosynthetic appartus of microorganisms. Classification of photosynthetic bacteria.|
Genetics. (allowance 6/3)
|Regulators of gene expression in bacteria and fungi. Catabolic repression. Lactose and tryptophane operons. cAMP in gene expression.|
Genetics and hereditary material. Molecular characterisation and localisation of the hereditary material. Modifications of genetic information. Mutagenes and mutations. Reversible mutations. Determination of xenobiotic mutagenicity. Auxotrophic mutants screening. Spontaneous station, fluctuation test, replica plating.
Genetics and adaptation. Mutations in organelle DNA.
|e.||Bacterial genetics -- konjugation, Hfr mutants, transduction, transformation. Genome mapping. Episomes, plasmids, transposons and transposable elements. Gene manipulation. Recombination. Recombinant strains and their application.|
|f.||Yeast and fungal genetics. Fungal sexual life cycle and pheromone signaling pathways.|