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|Language of final thesis:||Slovak|
|Title of the thesis:||Modelling Accessibility of Transport Infrastructure|
|Summary:||Ability to transport between places of various human activities is an inevitable prerequisite and a driving force of economy and liveability of a modern society. Regardless the negative mobility trends, the modal split in Bratislava is on a rather acceptable level compared to other European cities. Is this caused by relatively good quality supply and the efficiency of public transport system in this city? The accessibility is considered to be an important factor of the decision-making process and travel behaviour of passengers. The accessibility is conceived as an easiness to accomplish desired travel interaction in a given time, mainly as constrained by the layout and performance of the transport system in an area. Its perception is further influenced by individual abilities, options and preferences of passengers. The objective of the theoretical part of the thesis is a definition and a discussion on variety factors affecting the accessibility as one of the aspects determining the mobility behaviour of people. In the end, the accessibility could be understood as a wide set of characteristics of a transport system, having consequences to total trip time, or direct costs, respectively, which are the basic parameters used by measuring the accessibility. These parameters are also crucial for modelling of trip distribution, modal split and assignment. The analytical part of thesis is thus devoted to a detail review of existing accessibility indicators and measures in order to examine their suitability for assessment of relative accessibility within the public transport system from the users' perspective, as well as to identify possible limitations and deficiencies of the modeling procedures, being employed to set the above mentioned accessibility parameters. It has been revealed that despite a number of various accessibility indicators and measures, due to different reasons, none of those is actually suitable to answer the motivation matter of the research. Every model is a mathematical representation of a complex system, in which some simplifications and approximations are necessarily incorporated. Especially in case of urban and public transport, these inaccuracies may distort the modelled outcomes significantly. Coming out the analysis deductions, a theoretical framework of a new methodology for assessment of accessibility has been synthesized under an acronym ACCEPT to overcome the identified problems of existing measures and modeling techniques. It is based on precise computation of the travel time "reachability" / cost "affordability" of a mode (public transport), benchmarked to car, assuming several other accessibility factors. In order to support the innovative features of the methodology, two special tools have been developed: ACCEPT Route Search and ACCEPT Simulator. The first provides a unique algorithm for creation of an exhausting set containing all feasible connections within a public transport network. The latter serves for effective and precise calculation of average door-to-door travel time and its respective component times among all origins and destinations in the area even on extreme spatial resolution and for seven different types of user travel choice preferences. The innovative approaches of the ACCEPT methodology conceptual framework are validated on a part of the real public transport system in Bratislava. It has been revealed that both, the so-called Modifiable Area Unit Problem (MAUP) and individual user travel choice preferences may have serious impacts on accuracy of the average total travel time calculation. The deviation from the values calculated on the maximum level of spatial resolution in increasing with the size of the modeling unit (zone). And while the "optimal" travel choice strategies bring about small increments only, more specific choice types induce on significant prolongations from the absolutely minimal possible total travel time values. Different states of network arrangement are evaluated and compared by using the proposed ACCEPT indicators. From the point of view of provided level of accessibility, the transfer-requiring systems with higher frequencies seem to be more effective than a system with more direct but less frequent and fast connections. The "winners" and "losers" localities are identified, with respect to "reachability" of desired destinations under different types of user travel choice preferences. The impacts on the traffic load estimations of infrastructure elements have been investigated and are presented as well.|
|Key words:||modelling of transport, public transport systems, accessibility measuring and evaluation, accessibility, mode and route choice behaviour, travel time calculation, infrastructure loading|
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